System of values, rules, norms, practices, and politics founded on the belief that women are, by nature, “less than” men. This belief system gives way to such things as the sexual division of labour and power dynamics based on gender roles. Patriarchal norms exist and vary, both in type and magnitude, across all societies.
Discrimination of any kind based on social class, where those belonging to an elite, richer, better educated social class enjoy more power and credibility and are considered “better than” those who are less educated and less wealthy.
System where the man-woman pair bond (both sexual and affectionate) is the established social norm, and where any other form of pair bond is considered abnormal. Gives rise to discrimination and prejudice against those who are bisexual or homosexual.
System where gender identity is always a function of gender assigned at birth and where transgender individuals are “less than” cisgender individuals (cisgender individuals identify with the gender they were assigned as birth and with the gender identity society assigns it).
Discrimination based on age which manifests as harmful attitudes and behaviours that lead to the social exclusion of the elderly. Ageism is the reflection of two different constructs: commonly held negative stereotypes about aging and about the elderly, and a social organization primarily centred on citizens being young leading to a certain disregard for the real needs of elderly individuals. Seeing a woman as “less than” simply due to her age constitutes ageism. This form of discrimination is unique in that ultimately everyone ages and becomes subject to it.
System centred on an individual’s level of ability which excludes and marginalizes those with motor and cognitive limitations or disabilities and sees them as “less than.” Much like ageism, this form of discrimination can ultimately impact anyone developing any loss of physical or cognitive ability.
System rooted in society’s cult of beauty that sees lean body types as the ideal, which feeds negative stereotypes, prejudice, attitudes, and behaviours that stigmatize those whose body weight is not considered ideal. Institutional weight stigma is rooted in the fact that society is not inclusive of all body types, as seen in standard clothing sizes and seating in public spaces (such as public transportation, show halls, and classrooms). Hinders accessibility both in terms of services and leisure activities for individuals of large size.
System making the race of the dominant group the norm and where different groups of individuals are seen as “less than” based on not being part of this dominant group. Racism goes beyond conscious and individual attitudes and behaviours; it is also reflected in our institutional structures and socialization practices. Systemic racism is the term used to distinguish these structural forms of discrimination (wage gaps, life expectancy, segregation, etc.) from the more commonly understood form of racism rooted in individual attitudes and behaviours (prejudice, insults, acts of violence, etc.).
System reflecting the consequences of oppressing, eliminating, assimilating, and displacing Indigenous Peoples whose existence was seen as a hindrance. White supremacy continues to exist by having replaced Indigenous political and economic systems by new, non-Indigenous ones. As such, colonialism is a form of systemic racism.